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“Ebola virus” in Hungary – this is what a virologist says

Gabor Kiminesi books About the “Ebola virus” in Hungary, according to which the virus that appeared in Hungary and that the news is about is not really the Ebola virus:

not Ebola, But another member of the elephant family of viruses, including the Zaire Ebola virus known from African epidemics. Within this, we distinguish eight groups (genus), two of which are known to be human. Important groups for people are the notorious Ebola and Marburg viruses. They get their name from their spinning-like appearance (opening image) More about it here.

Other groups infect other animals, or are known only from among them, such as freshwater and marine fish, or have so far been described only in bats.

It has now also been discovered in Hungary luvio virus According to our current knowledge, it can only be linked to a specific type of bat, and based on the results so far, it is an extreme exaggeration to talk about human disease or infection – in detail below.

By the way, the Lloviu virus first appeared in 2002, so it has been proven in Europe for 20 years. Based on our results, this could mean an older existence, as their genetic diversity is very balanced.

sources:

Fish viruses in Europe: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/27/12/21-0491_article

Original discovery in Spain: https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1002304

2016 statement in Hungary: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5906664/

Our current scientific article:

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-022-29298-1

It infects human cells, we catch it?

(very uncertain)

Laboratory experiments in the flask are in no way comparable to a complete human body, in all its complexities. In fact, it has been shown to be able to infect human, monkey and bat cells under laboratory conditions. However, the reality is more complex than that, It has never been proven that the entire human body can do this To produce the same, moreover, we are talking here of infection and not disease.

Many viruses can infect humans with what is called asymptomatic form. Filamentous viruses are no exception, and the Reston Ebola virus, a member of the Ebola group (genus), is known to cause asymptomatic human infection.

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So a successful bypass has a large number of criteria, few of which are: adequate animal emptying, adequate encounter with virus, sensitive and accessible human cells, effective infection, effective virus replication, effective removal of virus from infected cells, systemic infection, proper discharge of quantity appropriate virus, etc. In detail about this and about the jump of viruses and the requirements for the development of epidemics in the MTA Science Festival lecture:

Can it be easily caught off a bat?

(of course not)

Nothing proves that yetThat a certain type of bat in which the virus has been detected will be able to transmit it to humans. To do this, a number of parameters must be met, most of which have been studied in these animals. To our knowledge, they do not excrete the virus in urine, feces, or saliva. Additionally, they are a very elusive species, so no non-professionals will ever meet them – I’d like to point out here that we’ve looked for the virus in other species across Europe and with a huge data set behind us, we may not encounter the other species I carry. Not only is the elimination of the virus from the infected animal necessary for the effective jump, but the receiving aspect, that is, the human encounter with these animals, their conditions and other necessary capabilities of the virus described above.

Never forget The ecological role of bats rivals that of insects around the world. They are very important and useful animals. The main focus of our own studies is on bat protection, as thousands of bats died in the Iberian Peninsula when the virus was originally detected, and we have seen a similar phenomenon in Hungary. Of course, assessing the risks on the human side is also important on this last point.

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From our package of suggestions for mitigating unknown dangers and protecting bats, we have prepared a post for professionals: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9090692/

OK, but if you catch him dead?

(mostly not)

Of course, our studies also included an understanding of the mechanisms after infection, and the potential to cause disease. In the case of Ebola and Marburg, shaky immune processes similar to the cytokine storm already known to COVID-19 lead to a lethal outcome.

In the case of filamentous viruses, the process that leads to fatal disease is often very similar. Here, after the active entry of viruses into the body (skipping event, infection), the so-called macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells are primarily targeted. These are the immune cells that give rise to inflammatory cytokines (molecules that mediate inflammatory processes) as a result of infection. The excessively spinning body ends up in the disease stage, harming itself.

So one of the initial tests for these viruses is whether they can do the same. We also examined this problem with our American colleagues, as Lloviu virus, like Reston ebolavirus, did not stimulate this process. Based on this, At the moment, we can say that even if you overcome the thousands of obstacles necessary for human infection, it is likely to cause only asymptomatic infection.

Post called: https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1010268

Why do we do such research?

The concept is to find and identify viruses before they find us. This concept has guided infectious disease research at least since the launch of SARS in 2002. The largest current US or European research grants are also advertised in a number of similar topics (eg: https://ec.europa.eu/…/horizon-hlth-2022-disease-07-02)

If we start looking for a virus when it appears in the form of human cases or epidemics, in some ways it is too late.

Research on the Lloviu virus is also taking place along this line, along with a number of other viruses, where we also have an important target for bat protection, as all bat species are protected in Europe. The most important component of research is the ongoing assessment of risks and the evolution of research along it.

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Very similar research on the so-called Bombali virus has been underway in America since 2018. Bombali virus was described in African bats in 2018. There was huge news in the Western press at the time that researchers had identified the pathogen even before the human disease. This virus is a member of the Ebola group, so it is actually a close relative of the Zaire Ebola virus. It was soon discovered in many other countries across Africa and appears to be capable of human infection due to the mechanisms and cultural backgrounds (scrub consumption) already known from Africa. US researchers have recently been rambling around this issue along a logic very similar to our studies, in preparation for possible human disease. source: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4035855

Our current findings cause such a sensation in the scientific world because it is very important for us to understand the way these viruses work to understand phylloviruses and to deal effectively with the terrible epidemics in Africa. Isolating the virus from a sample of bats in laboratory conditions paved the way for a number of researchers to understand and defend all elephant viruses, an unusual feat, as only Marburg viruses have been isolated from bats so far. Chosen by Nature Communications as one of the 50 best recently published articles on microbiology (https://www.nature.com/collections/jedgcgeija) and later reviewed by the journal Science (https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abq7835).

So in the end, the lesson is that the science and its consequences are far more complex than a short article can fit. Today’s media culture is often very exaggerated and impact hunting, so I can suggest that – let’s ask the researcher, let’s read the researcher instead. “

Other recommended articles on the topic:

https://pte.hu/hu/univpecs/az-europai-ebolavirus-nyomaban

https://24.hu/…/05/12/ebola-virus-denever-lloviu-jarvany/