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Is there anything that can come out of a black hole?

Supermassive gamma-ray bursts may be the first evidence that energy can escape from black holes.

The popular idea is that nothing can escape a black hole. When something passes through its event horizon, nothing, not even light, can be released from the grip of the gravitational field.

However, a rotating black hole generates an enormous amount of energy that could theoretically be released from the atmosphere, a region just outside the event horizon.

This phenomenon has already been proven theoretically and experimentally, and astronomers now believe that its existence has also been proven by observation.

Researchers observed GRB 190114C, the largest gamma ray burst ever observed (GRB stands for gamma ray burst) and reconstructed the process of events based on this, writes ScienceAlert is a scientific journal.

The luminosity of a gamma eruption during an eruption is equal to the brightness of all stars in the known universe. Their energy is given off by stellar-mass black holes by a process unknown as yet.

Last year astrophysicist Remo Ruffini and colleagues came up with an explanation of the process, a double hypernova.

According to them, events begin with a double star system that includes a star of carbon and oxygen at the end of its life cycle and a neutron star.

First, the carbon and oxygen star turns into a supernova, and its core collapses into a neutron star. Some of the emitted material falls back into the new neutron star, giving rise to X-rays.

Some of the material is absorbed by the companion neutron star, thus reaching a critical mass and turning into a black hole. This process is very fast, taking only 1.99 seconds.

The supernova material is then already being sucked up by the newly formed black hole, resulting in a gamma eruption between 1.99 and 3.99 seconds.

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Finally, the black hole absorbs additional matter, which produces gamma radiation due to its spin energy.

The researchers described the process that can lead to large-scale gamma-ray bursts. A rotating black hole interacts with the surrounding magnetic field, creating an electric field that incredibly accelerates electrons, producing high-energy radiation.

This radiation near the speed of light is not unusual Supermassive black holes at the heart of galaxies. This is created here as follows: a large amount of matter in the form of a disk revolves around the black hole, which absorbs part of it, but the other part of the matter accelerates along magnetic fields and is ejected into space at high speed.

Evidence suggests that the particle acceleration effect of magnetic fields also plays a role in gamma-ray bursts during black hole formation.

In the case of GRB 190114C, the researchers found a phenomenon similar to the one that occurs in the nuclei of galaxies, but here they did not observe a continuous release of matter, but rather a recurrent one.

Although it is unlikely that all scientists would agree with these findings, as there is a theory that gamma-ray bursts are caused by magnetic field collapse, the observation of GRB 190114C suggests that this is the case.

Cover photo: GRB 190114C Technical representation (Photo: ESA)