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Islamic history may shed new light on Hungarian prehistory – Miklós Sárközy to the Mandiner

Miklós Sárközy translated a historical work of outstanding importance for Hungarian prehistory. The book is on pages 6-11. The most important written source in the history of Central Asia in the sixteenth century.

Opening image: The Great Mosque of Bukhara

Miklos Sarkozy (1976) Iranian historian studying at Karoli Gaspar Reform University.

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What we need to know Bukhara History About “Islamic history” that you translated into Hungarian a few months ago?

ma Bukhara History The record, originally known as Chronicle of the Sami Empire of Central Asia, was originally written in Arabic in the Central Asian city of Bukhara in the 1830s and 1840s. the Bukhara History A work based on the best traditions of medieval Islamic Arab-Persian historiography, an urban historiography that formally looks at and draws upon the historical records of one hundred and fifty Muslims before him, including works on local history in Khorasan (eastern Iran). But also in an important part

Describes events in the steppe region before Islam outside the borders of the Caliphate,

And this information is very valuable, and often unique.

It is assumed that the record was commissioned by Sámi Yard. The author of the original Arabic version was Abu Bakr Muhammad Narskhi, who worked in the Sami court as a scribe in the early decades of the tenth century, about whom we do not know much. The Arabic version of the tenth century is not left to us, but in the twelfth century Bukhara History It was translated into Classical Persian, the common Central Asian language of the era, when slight additions were made to the text. the Bukhara History It should be noted that this work is the oldest fully surviving local Islamic historical record in Central Asia: it mainly follows the history of the city of Bukhara and the Bukhara oasis from the end of the sixth century to the middle of the tenth century, but it presents the geography of the Bukhara oasis and the famous intellectuals as well. Subsequent Persian designers added slight notes.

What new possibilities does the Hungarian record of prehistoric research expand?

a Bukhara History A 6-11. It is the most important written source in the history of Central Asia in the sixteenth century, and in fact is of great historical importance in terms of Hungarian prehistory, and is indispensable in both the last decades of pre-Islamic Central Asia and the early Islamic era. in Central Asia. Although he did not mention the ethnic groups that could be considered Hungarian by name, he did mention them at the appropriate time

It illuminates the most important period of Hungarian prehistoric

in an area that was in close proximity to the early Hungarians; Many of the Central Asian ethnic groups mentioned in the historical record, such as the Iranian-speaking Sogds and Khwarismians or certain groups of Turks, played a role to some extent in the political organization or cultural traditions of the emerging early Magyars. In addition, the Bukhara History It describes a region with intense economic and cultural relations with the settlements of the Southern Urals of the early Hungarians, sometimes quite informative, preserving information unknown elsewhere.

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Bukhara, details

Old city wall of Bukhara

So far, why haven’t researchers focused on studying this important book from a Hungarian perspective? I read that Ármin Vámbéry has already analyzed writing.

My opinion is that not only the excerpts from Hungarian prehistory, in which the Hungarians mention an explicit character, should be known, but also knowing the narrow context helps a lot. They are part of the text. On the other side

Not to mention the Hungarians, but 7-10. Given the history of the steppes, it is very important to know the important works and translate them into Hungarian,

Such work a Bukhara History is being. Who wants to understand what happened in Central Asia and the plains north of it in 6-11. Century, Narskhi Bukhara History An inevitable source.

It would be appreciated that Figures 6-11. The history of the steppes in the nineteenth century is also very important because of the neighbors of the Hungarians, Bukhara History Lapgen. On the other hand, political formations representing non-nomadic traditions, such as Sogd city-states, in 7-8. The history of the Central Asian expansion of the Tang Empire of China in the sixteenth century, the Islamic Caliphate that emerged in the early eighth century, and the rise of the Shamanic Empire after the dissolution of the Abbasid Caliphate provide rich information about this work.

Here I would like to single out the High, who are known for their 9-10 excellence. their political and economic relations in the Bulgarian Volga,

And they had a particularly strong interest in the Southern Urals.

Ormen Vampiri recognized the importance of Narsakhi’s work, and the first chapters of his monumental work The History of Bukhara, which was published in Hungarian, English and German in 1872-1873, was based practically on Narsakhi’s work, or at least with a thorough study. aware of. Vampire’s notable feature was that he was the first European scientist to comprehensively use Narshakhi’s work and incorporate it into Western scientific life.

Bukhara, Vampire Monument

Where did the idea come from to exploit the registry in this direction?

a Bukhara History Only few know its importance at home yet. Based on the manuscripts of the 12th century Persian version, a modern edition was made in the 20th century with the permission of Madris Razavi in ​​present-day Iran. As an Iranian, I collect 10-17 systematically. I was able to obtain 19th-century Persian historiography, including the modern Iranian version of Narskhi’s works, in Iran a few years ago, and read most of them, long before the present translation works. The modern Iranian edition of Razavi served as the basis for the current Hungarian translation, taking into account some minor readings of the various manuscripts.

Raised by my Turkish colleague Palaz Sudar in 2017,

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To make it available to the general public Bukhara History in Hungarian.

I must point out here that it is a classical and partly literary Persian historical work, not Bukhara History The only one that might be of interest because of an era or aspect of Hungarian historical or cultural tradition, but unfortunately these Persian wells have not yet been implanted in Hungary.

I know that Cihani Chronicle, one of the famous sources of Hungarian prehistory, was also born in Bukhara. What does this coincidence tell us?

reveals that 9-10. The Sami Empire of Central Asia, a Muslim dynasty with Iranian roots in Central Asia, played a prominent role in collecting and disseminating information about the contemporary Eurasian steppe world. The northern border of the Sami Empire was adjacent to the region for some time, with no significant geographical barrier between it and the nomads living north of it.

Throughout their existence, the Samanids vigorously watched over the nomads,

They had both defensive and offensive initiatives against them, but – as I noted earlier – they also sought to reach the areas beyond the steppe, where the Urals are.

In addition, the empire managed to build and develop an administration based on Islamic and Iranian traditions, which constantly collected data on the Sami state. As a member of the Jajani family, which also includes many of the Grand Viziers of the Navanis, Abu Abd Allah Muhammed Jihani was a great Numerian vizier between 914 and 922; The author of the history of Bukhara, Narsakhí, was active somewhat later, in the years 930-940, but since the end of the Sami era we can highlight an important work, the limit of science (regions of the world), completed around 982.

It is a large-scale Persian-language digital geographic encyclopedia of the inhabited world at that time,

He focused heavily on the steppe region (and here the Magyars are already included in a separate chapter). These three works are good examples of the strong interest in the Sami Empire and the deep knowledge of the Sami clergy of the contemporary Eurasian steppes, including the Hungarians and their neighbors.

Miklos Sarkozy

Bukhara, a Marhaölk tere

What role did the city of Bukhara in Central Asia play during the supposed emergence of the Magyars? What is the historical background?

The founding of Bukhara appears to be related to the Sogd ethnic group, during which Bukhara was pre-Islamic in 6-8. It had already become a major city in the 20th century, with developed agriculture and an extensive network of international relations along the Silk Roads between Eastern Europe and Western China. In addition to all this, however, it should be noted that in the pre-Islamic period we can speak not only of one city but also of the flourishing oasis of Bukhara where many other cities developed in parallel with Bukhara.

The primacy of Bukhara only became decisive within the oasis during the Islamic era. From the second half of the 9th century onwards, the city of Bukhara began to become the eastern jewel of classical Iranian Islamic culture. Buddhist and Zoroastrian populations began to dominate Islam, Sogd was replaced by Persian and Arabic, more and more Turkish-speaking groups settled in the oasis of Bukhara and

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Bukhara will become a famous scientific center of Islamic religion and culture throughout the world by the tenth century,

It was also called the dome of Islam in Arabic for this reason. The Samanids, this Eastern Iranian dynasty, would at the same time Islamize Central Asia and become the patron saint of the Persian language and literature that was reborn in the eastern part of the Islamic world. The literary New Persian language was born around 900 at the court of the Semites. The Semites ruled Central Asia for nearly 1,000 years, during which time Bukhara became a fascinating commercial and cultural city, the leading city in the region.

Based on the book, what can we learn about the multifaceted relationship between settled city dwellers and nomads, including Hungarians?

Bukhara was geographically open and helpless against military attacks, with no major geographical obstacles besieging the city. However, until the Mongol invasion in 1220, the city did not suffer significant damage, nor did it undergo an attack that would empty it of its inhabitants. All this indicates that both in the Sogdian period and in the early Islamic period

Bukhara had important and close relations with the nomads who lived mainly in its north.

What happened later?

Subsequently, Bukhara, who came under Islamic rule, had to defend itself again against the nomads of the steppes, who did not become subjects of the caliphate. In the second half of the eighth century, the construction of border protection fortification systems (ribs) began precisely in the vicinity of Bukhara against the Turks, the construction for defensive purposes was known since 900 AD, under the number Isman I (892) -907. Later on, the situation became more friendly again between city dwellers and nomads, such as

After 950 soldiers of Turkish origin prevail in Navani’s army,

It is in this age that the stronger perpetuation of Central Asia and the slow minority of Iranian ethnic elements also begin.

After the year 1000, Bukhara would become the capital of the first Turkish Muslim dynasty, the Karachanides, replacing the Samanids. Thus we can say that the relationship between the Bedouins and the settlers was variable. The townspeople often used the military power of the nomads, and the nomads enjoyed the economic benefits of the commercial prosperity of the rich Sukh and Islamic Bukhara. Narskhi History provides a pleasant description of these undulating trends in the history of Bukhara. All these experiences can be used elsewhere in Hungarian prehistory, in studying the relationship between nomads and city dwellers.

Sami shrine

Bukhara Castle