Habsburg IV. Charles His attempt to occupy the throne at the end of March 1921 not only had domestic political consequences, but also exacerbated the foreign policy position of Hungary. Under the Versailles peace regime, Hungary’s four neighbors benefited from the territories of the Kingdom of Hungary before 1918, with Romania, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia taking in whole parts of the country, while Austria benefited much less. These decisions almost inevitably led to hostile opposition from New Hungary and its neighbors.
This was already evident in the spring of 1920, during negotiations over the rethinking of the Treaty of Trianon in Paris and London. The Czechoslovak, Romanian and South Slavic delegations protested indignantly at the British and Italian proposals to change the borders established in 1919 in favor of Hungary, the Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia, Edward Bennis The borders of Hungary, established in 1919, should be considered “final”.
Protection and mutual impartiality
The cooperation of the three countries with Hungary continued in the second half of the year, and even began to take the form of a contract. Representatives of the Republic of Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia signed a Federal Treaty in Belgrade on August 14, 1920, the keyword phrase reads: […] Hurry up to defend the objecting party. ”In fact, the top-secret military pact attached to the treaty went even further. Not only did it provide a common defense in the event of a Hungarian attack, but also the fact that if one of the signatories attacked Hungary, the other would
Committed to maintaining its neutrality towards its ally and keeping at least two divisions mobilized at the borders of Hungary.
The Hungarian leadership felt that regional cooperation against it was unfolding, which, if joined by two other neighbors, would encircle Hungary in a ring. Therefore, it also sought to establish some kind of cooperation with Romania and Czechoslovakia. However, this effort, mainly due to limits, was not successful until the spring of 1921. In this case, iv. Charles of Hungary, which was evaluated by all of our neighbors as a step against the status quo in Versailles.
They feared that the ruling regime in the Hungarian capital might generate or reinforce separatist tendencies among its citizens, especially Catholics. Therefore, on April 23, 1921, the Czechoslovak Republic also concluded a defense treaty with the Kingdom of Romania.
The Czechoslovak-Roman Treaty was on the same footprint as the Czechoslovak Yugoslav Treaty. Moreover, it has gone further by requiring continued consultation on foreign policy issues affecting Hungary, and the fact that both parties would “act in unison.” The two treaties were concluded by a similar spirit agreement signed on June 7, 1921 between Romania and the Kingdom of Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. The latter differs from the two only in that it also requires respect for peace in Neuilly, that is, the guarantee of Bulgaria’s borders.
Czechoslovakia would have liked Austria to join the federal system created in this way, which was called Kisantant based on the common name of the victorious great powers (Entente). However, this did not happen due to the peaceful settlement of the border dispute between Hungary and Austria (Burgenland) between October and December 1921. However, our other three neighbors broke a lot of pepper under the noses of the Hungarian government. In 1921-1922, for example, Hungary’s successful accession to the League of Nations was delayed by more than a year, and in 1923 every effort was made to exacerbate the terms of the people’s loan disbursement that the Bitlin government had requested.
However, no commitment was made to Germany regarding any foreign policy settlement or military defense. Therefore, when the German economic and then political invasion of the region began in the early 1930s, their national interests – and thus the centrifugal forces within the bloc – increasingly prevailed. In the fall of 1938, as Hitler embarked on the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, none of his allies rushed to his aid. Kisantant existed until the Order of Versailles. For twenty years.
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